Category Archives: EDUCATION IN RWANDA UBUREZI MU RWANDA

IKIBAZO CYA QUALITY ya EDUCATION MURI ZA KAMINUZA N’AMASHURI MAKURU Y’U RWANDA

Ubwo Nyakubahwa Prezida wa Republika y’u Rwanda yasuraga Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda muri August 2009, mu kiganiro yahaye umuryango wa NUR, yagarutse ku bumenyi budahagije bw’abanyeshuri barangiza muri Kaminuza. Prezida wa Republika yabwiye abalimu ko bivugwa n’abakoresha ko abanyeshuri bamwe barangiza batazi no kwandika neza ibaruwa yo gusaba akazi, abandi barangije bafite distinction (the best ones) bakabaha akazi ko kwigisha muri Kaminuza, hashira umwaka cyanga ibiri bakoherezwa mu mahanga kwiga Master, bamwe bagera muri za Kaminuza zo hanze bikabananira, bakagaruka bagakomeza gukora muri Kaminuza.
Abalimu ntibashimishijwe no kumva ibyo bintu, ariko nyamara benshi bari bazi ko ari ukuri. Abakoresha benshi muri public na private sectors bari bamaze igihe babyinubira ndetse bakanabibwira abalimu bahuye nabo.
Nyakubahwa Prezida wa Republika amaze kuvuga iryo jambo, ubundi abalimu bari gukoresha inama rusange bagakora analyse, bakinenga, basanga aribyo bagashakisha impamvu quality ikomeza kugenda isubira inyuma, nuko byakosorwa, ariko siko byagenze, babaye nk’abahungabanye ntibagira icyo bakora baranuma.
Abalimu bamwe bavuga ko batinye kugira icyo bakora ngo berekane analysis yabo kuri ibyo bintu, kubera ubwoba bari bafitiye abayobozi ba Kaminuza, bashoboraga kuba bamwe mu batera ikibazo cya quality , cyane cyane ko hari ingero za bagenzi babo bari barirukanywe nabi kubera kuvugisha ukuri, bakaremerwa amadosiye ncishamutwe, kandi byaragaragara ko barengana, ntihagire igikorwa ngo barenganurwe. Iyo bimeze bityo rero nyine … ngo iyo atewe hejuru buri wese asama aye !!
Ariko kubera ko quality ya education ariyo izatuma abanyarwanda bazabaho neza cyanga nabi ejo hazaza, umuntu wese ukunda igihugu (patriot) ntiyareka ngo urubyiruko rwacu, arirwo bayobozi b’ejo hazaza, ngo rukomeze kuba victim y’imikorere yacu twe barezi, ntacyo avuze. Yemwe ni n’inshingano z’umunyarwanda wese ukunda u Rwanda, gutanga ibitekerezo byubaka ku bibazo igihugu cyacu gihura nabyo ibyo ari byo byose. Buri wese agomba kubitekerezaho, ariko yagira icyo anenga agatanga umuti wacyo uko awubona.
Akaba ariyo mpamvu niyemeje gutanga uyu musanzu w’ibitekerezo byanjye ku mpamvu numva quality igenda igwa mu mashuri makuru, ndetse ngakora na proposals z’uko byakosorwa. Of course impamvu ni nyinshi kandi ni complexes, ariko ndibanda kuri zimwe mbona ari more important kandi zishobora kuba addressed bitaruhije cyane. Ngo iyo ibuye ryagaragaye … Nk’umwarimu wigishije imyaka irenga 30 mu Mashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza zitandukanye kandi mu bihugu bitandukanye, harimo imyaka 15 muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, nabonye byinshi binyemerera gutanga ibitekerezo bifatitse kandi bishobora kugira akamaro. Mu by’ukuri iyi nyamdiko si umuti w’ikibazo ahubwo ni nka proposal ya debate ku kibazo kitureba twese twakunguranaho ibitekerezo, nk’abanyarwanda bitaye kuri development y’igihugu cyabo.
Quality ya education muri za Kaminuza n’Amashuri Makuru mu Rwanda yaraguye? My response: Sana, isigaye iri hasi cyane, bituma ari ikibazo kihutirwa kubonerwa umuti.
Yagushijwe n’izihe mpamvu? Ni nyinshi zimwe zituruka ku mateka yaranze u Rwanda, izindi ziduturukaho ubwacu nk’abanyarwanda baba mu Rwanda. Dore zimwe muri zo:
1- Surpopulation y’amashuri:
Muri 1st and 2nd Republics mu Rwanda, abantu bose ntibari bemerewe kwiga, cyane cyane muri Kaminuza, bitewe n’impamvu z’ivangura tuzi twese. N’abemererwaga kwiga muri Kaminuza babaga ari mbarwa, kuko hari umubare w’imyanya ntarengwa, bityo nta cyumba cyo kwigishirizamo washoboraga gusangamo abanyeshuri barenze 30-50 maximum.

Muri 3rd Republic, habaye democratisation ya education muri levels zose, buri munyarwanda wese ubifitiye uburenganzira (watsinze ikizamini cya Leta) agashobora kwiyandikisha muri Kaminuza nta yandi mananiza. Ndetse n’abari barabujijwe kwiga muri Republika ya kabiri bashobora noneho kwiga kandi benshi barabikoze. Ubwo kandi ninako byagenze muri secondary schools.

Resultat yabaye iki? Umuvuduko w’ubwiyongere bw’abanyeshuri biyandikishaga muri Kaminuza warengaga kure ubushobozi bwa Leta yari ihanganye n’ibibazo ishyano ryose by’ingaruka ya Jenocide yakorewe abatutsi, bituma amashuri yubakwaga adahaza, ndetse n’aho abashoramari bigenga batangiye kwishyiriraho ayabo, nabwo ubushobozi bwabo n’ubwa Leta ntibyahagije kugira ngo ikibazo cya surpopulation y’amashuri gicyemuke. Ariko kandi iki kibazo ntaho twari kugihungira, byari ngombwa ko kibaho. Mu bihugu byose habayemo impinduka democratique, iha abaturage bose uburenganzira bumwe, iki kibazo cyagiye kigaragara kandi ntakundi byashoboraga kugenda. Iki kibazo kizagenda gikemuka uko abashoramari bigenga bazagenda bashora imari nyinshi mu burezi kurusha uko babikora ubu, mu kubaka ibigo n’amashuri bishya. Kizagenda gikemuka, uko urubyiruko ruzagenda rwumva ko Kaminuza atariyo kamara, bakumva kandi bakitabira amashuri makuru y’imyuga (technicians) abaha amahirwe yo kwiga ibintu bizabafasha kwihangira imirimo. Ikibazo kizakemuka kandi uko abanyarwanda benshi bazagenda bumva uburyo bugezweho bwo kwiga hakoreshejwe ICT, bakiga muri distance learning na pure elearning (biratandukanye), bagashobora kurangiza Kaminuza biga bakoresha gusa za Open Educational Resources (OERs) kuri internet, kandi bakanahabwa impamyabumenyi za Kaminuza bazaba bihitiyemo kubarizwamo. Muri ubu buryo bugitangira (ariko butarasakara), ikiba gikenewe gusa ni access kuri computer connected kuri Internet. Kugeza ubu umuntu yashoboraga kwiyigisha ibyo ashaka byose kuri Internet kuko Kaminuza nyinshi zikomeye zisigaye zishyira amasomo yazo yose kuri web for free, ariko nta Kaminuza yashoboraga kubona imugirira evaluation ngo imuhe impamyabumenyi ( certificate, diploma cg degree). Icyo kibazo gitangiye gukemuka. Kuva uyu mwaka 2013, hari Network y’amashuri makuru na za Kaminuza byo muri USA, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA, JAPAN, n’ibindi bihugu bigenda byiyongeraho, byishyize hamwe mucyo bise Open Educational Resources university (OERu) initiatve, bigamije kushyira mu bikorwa tertiary education for all and FOR FREE . Nzakigarukaho kuko ni revolution itagira uko isa, izatuma abantu bose babuzwaga kwiga Amashuri Makuru/Kaminuza kubera ubukene, kubura imyanya mu bigo by’amashuri, kubura aho baba, kuba kure yaho bigira, kubera akazi, ubumuga n’ibindi, bazashobora kwiga bakarangiza Kaminuza bagatsindira impamyabumenyi mu nzego zose (Bachelor, Master and PhD) zitanzwe na za Kaminuza/Amashuri Makuru zizwiho quality kw’isi yose. Ibyo byose FOR FREE. Objective ya education for all izaba yuzuye. Ibi nabyo bizagabanya cyane umubare w’abigira muri za campus.

2- Kudaha abalimu b’abanyarwanda agaciro na Recruitment y’abanyamahanga idasobanutse.
Ibi sinabitindaho, gusa igihe amashuri makuru ayoborwa n’abahashyi b’abanyamahanga, ntawakwizera ko bayayobora nka bene igihugu b’aba patriots, baba bitaye kuri interests z’igihugucyabo. Usibye ko biruhije kumva ukuntu igihugu cyacu gihora kibona imidari mu miyoborere myiza, tukagira Prezida w’Imena muri Afrika ndetse no kw’isi, tukagira aba Ministri bashimwa n’isi yose, abayobozi b’ingabo b’ibyamamare mw’isi yose, abakozi ba Leta bashimwa cyane dukesha iyo mikorere, maze ngo tukabura abanyarwanda, bashobora kuyobora amashuri makuru neza ( Rectors, Vice-Rectors) !!!??. Ibyo ntibyakumvikana. Abo bahashyi kandi mu mashuri makuru yose barimo, bagiye barangwa no kutumvikana n’abalimu b’abanyarwanda, bakabasuzugura ndetse kenshi bakabatesha agaciro. Ibyo bigatuma haba atmosphere itari nziza igira ingaruka ku mikorere y’abalimu ndetse n’abandi bakozi. Iyo utishimye ntukora neza, iyo umukoresha aguhahamura ntukora neza, iryo si ibanga. Umukoresha afite uruhare runini mu gutuma haba umwuka mwiza mu kigo ayobora. Ikindi kigaragara ni working conditions z’abalimu. Iyo umwalimu w’umunyarwanda ahembwa intica ntikize, kandi ari overloaded mu kazi, biba ngombwa ko ashakisha uko yabaho n’umuryango we, ibyo bigatuma igihe cye agikoresha muri zindi activities nyinshi zo gushakisha imibereho, aho cyagakoreshejwe gusa mu kazi ke. Amakuru mashya avuga ko iki kibazo cyatangiye gukemurwa hamwe na hamwe. Yesu ashimwe.
Abayobozi bamwe ba za Kaminuza, ntibakora analyse nyakuri y’impamvu quality isubira inyuma mu bigo byabo, ahubwo bagakwiza ikinyoma bavuga ko impamvu ari kubera ubushobozi bucye n’ubuswa bw’ abalimu b‘abanyarwanda !!! Ndetse bamwe bakemeza ko abo baswa, aho kureka ngo bagenzi babo b’abanyamahanga bita experts (ngo babarusha ubwenge) ngo babigishe, ko ahubwo banabanga bakanabarwanya (xenophobia)!!. Ibi byo ni agahomamunwa pe. Wasobanura ute ko abalimu batangije Kaminuza muri 1995, ikaba ikirangirire mu mahanga no mu Rwanda kubera uburezi itanga, wasobanura ute ko abo balimu bari intiti zitangarirwa na bose kubera competences z’abo bigishaga, bagize baaaaatya nyuma y’imyaka irenga icumi, ngo pi, bagahinduka abaswa kabuhariwe?
Ibyerekeye kwanga anamyamahanga byo, ni akumiro. Ntanarimwe abalimu muri za Kaminuza bigeze barangwa na xenophobia. Iyo xenophobia itigeze ibaho mbere, yaba yaratangiye nyuma y’imyaka irenga icumi bigenze bite? Noneho rero urebye ko n’abo balimu bavugwaho kwanga abanyamahanga, wasanga abatari bake muribo barize kandi bakigisha mu mahanga mbere ya kuza mu Rwanda.

Tuvugishe ukuri Ubundi kugira ngo umunyamahanga yemererwe kwigisha muri Kaminuza, hari criteria agomba kuba yujuje (nizo kw’isi yose): kuba afite diploma ihanitse (PhD) , afite experience ndende mu kwigisha no mu bushakashatsi mu rwego rwa Kaminuza (yerekanwa na publications yakoze kuri international level), kuba yarayoboye abandi balimu bategura PhDs na Masters, afite grade ya Full Professor, Associate (not Assistant) Professor cyanya byibuze Senior Lecturer, kandi hakaba nta mwene gihugu ufite ibyo byose bamusaba. Ibyo byose ni ngombwa kugira ngo uwo mwalimu mu gihe azamara mu Rwanda, azabe ategura abanyarwanda bazashobora kumusimbura ndetse no kuzategura nabo abandi balimu barumuna babo. Unfortunately siko bimeze. Umunyamahanga ufite Bachelor’s degree cyanga Master’s, nta experience, kandi muri field ye hari abanyarwanda bafitemo PhD/Master ndetse bamurusha na experience, uwavuga ko uwo munyamahanga atari ngombwa, dore ko aba anahembwa akayabo k’amadolari, ubwo uwabivuga yaba abaye xenophob cyangase yaba arwanira interests z’igihugu cye? Naho se gushyira muri pension umunyarwanda Full/Associate Professor ngo akwije imyaka 65, kandi udafite umunyarwanda ukiri muto wo muri urwo rwego umusimbura, maze ukazana umunyamahanga ufite grade yo hasi kandi muri domaine adakenewemo, ndetse rimwe na rimwe unarengeje ya myaka 65, ibyo byumvikana gute? Ayo makuru nyakuri, iyo reality, niyo abalimu bakwiye kujya bageza ku bayobozi b’igihugu cyacu. Batabikoze, ba bayobozi b’amashuri bizanira bene abo banyamahanga bazajya babeshya ibyo bashatse. Kubanyomoza (with concret facts) it is a patriotic duty. Umwalimu patriot ntiyigisha knowledge gusa, yigisha na patriotism, akayipratika.

Reka ngaruke kuri iki kintu gikomeye kiba mu mashuri makuru yo muri iki gihugu, by’umwihariko aya Leta, cyo gusezerera abalimu bafite grade ya Full Professor, Associate Professor, Senior Lecturer, ngo bujuje imyaka 65!!! Ibi sinzi aho twabivanye, kuko nta gihugu na kimwe ndumva bibamo. Ni umwihariko wacu kabisa. Ahandi abalimu, abaganga na ba lawyers bo mu nzego zihanitse bafatwa nk’amata y’abashyitsi kubera akamaro baba bafitiye igihugu. Iwacu habuze iki ngo tubahe agaciro bakwiye tunababyaza umusaruro? Ni ibyo gukoraho ubushakashatsi ! Abo balimu ba Kaminuza baba bamaze kugira ubumenyi na experience bihanitse, bituma ahandi aribo bayobora ubushakashatsi bw’abalimu bakiri mu nzego zo hasi, babigisha kwigisha no gukora ubushakashatsi buhanitse, bayobora za thesis za Doctorate / PhD / Master’s. Mu bihugu byateye imbere (America, Uburayi na Aziya) abo balimu bubahwa by’umwahariko, baba bafite permanent offices zabo, bakoreramo kandi bayobora ubushakashatsi, ubundi bakigisha amasomo ahanitse bazobereyemo banamenyereza ba Assistants babo. Cyakora iyo umwalimu nkuwo abyishakiye, kubera ko yumva atagifite imbaraga cyanga ku mpamvu ze bwite, asaba kugenda. Ariko kirazira ko bamwuhura nk’aho ari umugizi wa nabi cyanga ntacyo akimariye Institution n’igihugu cye !!!
Agashya rero k’undi mwihariko w’igihugu cyacu, nuko ubu hari za Kaminuza zigenga (private) zahawe recommendation itanditse, ngo ntizigahe akazi abo balimu bashaje bavuye muza Leta!!! Uretse ko abakora ibyo baba bivanga, binyuranije n’amategeko y’igihugu cyacu (kereka niba batumva private icyo bivuga), ntawanatinya kuvuga ko ibyo atari byiza na busa kabisa. Bisa no kubuza aba Professors gusaza neza ! Wagira ngo abo balimu ni abanzi b’igihugu bagomba kwicishwa ubukene n’inzara bakazapfa basabiriza kandi bacyenewe !?? Ibi kandi bijyanye n’undi mwihariko w’uru Rwanda wo gutesha abasaza agaciro, bitandukanye n’umuco wa ba sokuru, ndetse n’imico y’ibindi bihugu byo muri AFRICA . Birababaje pe! Ibyo byose rero birumvikana ko bigira ingaruka zitari nziza kuri quality y’imyigishirizey’abalimu no ku banyeshuri bigisha.

3- Kubura ibikoresho (equipment):
Igikoresho number one gikenerwa na Mwalimu n’Umunyeshuri, ni IGITABO. Ni fundamental. Ubu rero ibitabo byiza bya Kaminuza birahenda cyane kw’isi yose, bituma mu bihugu byacu, uretse n’Umunyeshuri, na Mwalimu kugura ibitabo ngombwa ni ihurizo rikomeye. Usanga igitabo cya reference kigezweho kiri mu madolari 100 – 200 ndetse bishobora no kurenga!! Kaminuza zacu rero kubona amafranga yo kugura ibitabo na za reviews bihagije kandi bigezweho ni ikibazo zaburiye igisubizo, cyane cyane urebye umubare w’abanyeshuri bakoresha za libraries, n’amikoro zifite.
Umuti: Hoppely umuti urahari kandi uroroshye kuboneka no kunywa. Umuti witwa Open Educational Resources (OERs).

« Open educational resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials in the public domain, or released with an open license, that allows users to legally and freely use, copy, adapt, and re-share. OERs present a strategic opportunity to improve the quality of education as well as facilitate policy dialogue, knowledge sharing and capacity building » 2012 World Open Educational Resources Congress Wednesday 20 – Friday 22 June, 2012 Room II, UNESCO HQ, Paris, France.

The World OER Congress held at UNESCO, Paris on 20-22 June 2012,
Noting that Open Educational Resources (OER) promote the aims of the international statements quoted above;
Recommends that States, within their capacities and authority:
Encourage research on OER. Foster research on the development, use, evaluation and re-contextualisation of OER as well as on the opportunities and challenges they present, and their impact on the quality and cost-efficiency of teaching and learning in order to strengthen the evidence base for public investment in OER .

OERs si ibitabo cyanga texts gusa, harimo na za software, virtual experiments na simulations zikoreshwa neza cyane muri scientific experiments (physics, chemistry, biology, maths, medicine, geography, etc.) by’umwihariko zigatuma umunyeshuri abona (vizualisation) concepts abstraits, aho gufata mu mutwe ama formulas … Mbega ni igitego cya ICT mu myigishirize no mu myigire ya science. Ikintu kindi cyiza cyane nuko OERs zituma amashuri bitakiri ngombwa ko atanga akayabo k’amafranga yo kugura ibitabo, bityo ayo mafranga akaba yakoreshwa ibindi, nko kongera ubushobozi muri ICT bagura computers cyanga ibindi bikenewe (economy) .

4- Amanota y’ubuntu no Gukuraho MEMOIRES.
Iyo abantu barangiza Kaminuza batazi kwandika CV n’ibaruwa yo gusaba akazi biba bivuze iki? Bivuga Ko kuva mu mwaka wa mbere bagiye bimuka nta bizami bakoze cyanga se bahabwaga amanota y’ubuntu. Muri za Kaminuza n’Amashuri Makuru byo mu Rwanda, muri iyi myaka bisigaye bisa naho ari itegeko ko abanyeshuri bose batsinda, kabone niyo batigeze bakandagira mw’ishuri cyangwa batumva n’icya gatanu cy’amasomo bigishijwe. Ibi bintu biri mu byatumye abanyeshuri bamwe birara, ntibige kuko baba bazi ko uko bizagenda kose bazimuka. Abalimu benshi, kubera umubare munini w’abanyeshuri n’amasaha menshi yo kwigisha, baba overloaded bigatuma badafata igihe cyo gukora ibibazo byiza bisaba gutekereza, abanyeshuri bakiga bafata mu mutwe ibyo batumva neza, ibyo nabyo ba balimu bakabikosora huti huti, ugasanga, at the end, abafashe mu mutwe cyanga batomboye neza batsinze. Ibyo bigusha cyane quality ya knowledge y’abanyeshuri. Ibyo hambere, aho bakeya bigaga neza, mu gihe benshi babubuzwaga kwiga, ntibigomba gusimburwa na benshi biga kandi biga nabi. Resultat nyine ni iriya tubona bamwe barangiza bagatsindira DIPLOME ntacyo bazi, bajya hanze gukomeza bagatsindwa …
Kaminuza rero n’Amashuri Makuru, bafashijwe n’inzego zibishinzwe za Ministere y’Uburezi bakwiye gusuzumana ubushishozi no gushakira umuti uhamye icyo kibazo gikomeye.

Reka mbe ndangirije aha (biracyaza) ariko navuge ku kindi kintu gifite ingaruka itari nziza kuri quality mu Mashuri Makuru/Kaminuza, cyatewe n’imyumvire idahwitse ya democratization ya higher education:
Gushyiraho Kaminuza za nimugoroba (evening University) zigamo cyane cyane abakozi (ba Public/Private sectors) byatumye abanyarwanda benshi batashoboraga kwiga kubera kubura igihe cyo kwiga ku manywa, nabo biga, kandi bagakomeza no gukora akazi kabatunze n’imiryango yabo. Iki nacyo ni igitego muri byinshi Leta yacu yatsinze mu rugamba rwa development.
Ariko, urebye uko amashuri yabishyize mu bikorwa, usanga hari ibigomba gukosorwa kugira ngo quality itahononekera.
Ntabwo ari logic, ntanubwo ari possible ko, umuntu wirirwa akora akazi ka Leta cyanga ka private Company, kuva sa moya mu gitondo kugera sa kumi nimwe, akava ku kazi ahitira mw’ishuri kugeza sa yine zijoro, ntibishoboka ko yakwiga akamenya akoresheje igihe kireshya n’icya wawundi wiga nta kandi kazi akora, maze bose bagatsinda kimwe. Umwe afite igihe cyo kwiyigisha nyuma y’amasomo, gushakashaka no gusoma ibitabo, dore ko ari byo bibamo ibisobanuro bisesuye, ingero na practical applications, bituma wumva ibyo mwalimu yigishije mu gihe gito; undi we yirirwa akora (let presume ko aba akorana umurava), nyuma akajya mw’ishuri, akavayo sa yine z’ijoro, agataha arushye aryama kugira ngo atazakererwa akazi k’ejo. Ubwo yiga ryari koko? Muri weekend ? Yego ariko ntibihagije, uretse ko muri weekend ariho abalimu ba visitors ariho babona umwanya wo kuza kwigisha amasomo yabo. Abo banyeshuri bombi se basabwa kugira ubumenyi bumwe mu gihe kimwe bate? Nyamara mu Rwanda bombi baratsinda, bose kandi kimwe, bakagraduatingira hamwe. Ibyo bintu twese turabizi, ariko kubera cult of degree (culte du diplome) buri wese muri bariya badafite igihe cyo gusubira mu masomo, aba ashaka kugira urwo rupapuro (degree ya Kaminuza, kabone n’aho yaba ntacyo azi. Cyane cyane ko ariyo laisser passer yonyine ishobora kumugeza ahantu hose hari akazi kazana atubutse. Ikibazo cy’uko uburezi muri za Kaminuza zimwe (no muri private secondary schools zimwe) bwarahindutse pure business hatitaweho exigencies za quality, nacyo ni ikindi inzego zibishinzwe zikwiye guhagurukira amazi atararenga inkombe.

Dore uko mbibona: Ibintu byo kwemera ko abantu bose biga Kaminuza bagomba guhabwa university’s degree byanze bikunze, byafatwa nk’intsinzi ya democracy muri higher education, ariko igihe kirageze , niba kitarenze, ko kubyina intsinzi birangira, hakarebwa noneho icyakorwa ngo intsinzi tuyiteze imbere. Dute ? Wa mugani, we are not going to reinvent the wheel, nahandi birakorwa, ibi byo guha chance abakozi (apana abakora za jobs but imirimo permanent) birasanzwe mu bihugu byinshi biteye imbere muri America, Uburayi … Ariko ho, abakozi biga igihe kirekire kurusha bagenzi babo badakora. N’iwacu dukwiye kureba uko icyo kibazo cyakemuka bidatinze, abantu ntibakomeze gutanga impamyabumenyi zitagira aho zihuriye n’ubumenyi nyabwo bw’abazihabwa. Sinshidikanya ko Mineduc izirikana icyo kibazo.

Ibyo gukuraho Memoire byo simbitindaho, abantu barabivuze barasarara, cyakora icyiza nuko Kaminuza n’Amashuri Makuru nyinshi zayigumishijeho kubera akamaro ifite. Ubundi iyo umunyeshuri akoze memoire ye neza akayidefanda neza, aba yerekanye ko yakuze, atakiri mu rwego rw’abanyeshuri yigagamo, ko afite ubushobozi, ubushishozi, ubumenyi na techniques bihagije kugira ngo abe yakwitangirira ubushakashatsi muri domaine ye. Memoire ubwayo nibwo bushakashatsi nyabwo bwa mbere umunyeshuri aba yikoreye ubwe, ubushakashatsi bukemura ikibazo runaka muri society, akaba ari nabwo bwerekana ubushobozi bwe, bukanamuhesha impamyabumenyi. Memoire rero ntabwo ari devoir nk’izindi, nkuko bamwe basigaye bayita. Ntaho bihuriye. Abayikuyeho bakwiye kuyisubizaho, mu nyungu z’urubyiruko bigisha ndetse n’iz’igihugu cyacu.
… (Biracyaza)

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revolution muri high education sector: Kwiga muri za kaminuza ku buntu byaratangiye

KWIGA KAMINUZA KU BUNTU  !?   Mu gihe kwiga muri za Kaminuza zisanzwe bigenda biba ingorabahizi kubera ko bihenda kandi abantu benshi bakaba bakennye, abalimu bashakashatsi ba za Kaminuza z’ibihugu byateye imbere (cyane cyane muri Amerika, Canada, UK, Australia, South Africa) biyemeje gutanga ubumenyi bwabo (inyigisho, ibitabo, ubushakashatsi, etc.) ku buntu, babushyira kuri Internet aho […]

ikibazo cya quality mu mashuri makuru na kaminuza byo mu Rwanda

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